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Religião e Espiritualidade / 08/07/2021

ISLAMISM

ISLAMISM - The Great Mosque, located in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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ISLAMISM

Fonte Source: khadim-un-nabi Rao, Panoramio. - Pacifist Journal & Pacifist Newspaper Team

The term Islamism, which originally denoted the religion of Islam, first appeared in the English language as Islamismus in 1696, and as Islamism in 1712. The term appears in the U.S. Supreme Court decision in In Re Ross (1891). By the turn of the twentieth century the shorter and purely Arabic term "Islam" had begun to displace it, and by 1938, when Orientalist scholars completed The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Islamism seems to have virtually disappeared English usage.

The term "Islamism" acquired its contemporary connotations in French academia in the late 1970s and early 1980s. French, it began to migrate to the English language in the mid-1980s, and in recent years has largely displaced the term Islamic fundamentalism in academic circles.

The new use of the term "Islamism" at first functioned as "a marker for scholars more likely to sympathize" with new Islamic movements; however, as the term gained popularity it became more specifically associated with political groups such as the Taliban or the Algerian Armed Islamic Group, as well as with highly publicized acts of violence.

"Islamists" who have spoken out against the use of the term, insisting they are merely "Muslims", include Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah (1935-2010), the spiritual mentor of Hezbollah, and Abbassi Madani (1931- ), leader of the Algerian Islamic Salvation Front.

A 2003 article in the Middle East Quarterly states:

In summation, the term Islamism enjoyed its first run, lasting Voltaire to the First World War, as a synonym for Islam. Enlightened scholars and writers generally preferred it to Mohammedanism. Eventually both terms yielded to Islam, the Arabic name of the faith, and a word free of either pejorative or comparative associations. There was no need for any other term, until the rise of an ideological and political interpretation of Islam challenged scholars and commentators to come up with an alternative, to distinguish Islam as modern ideology Islam as a faith... To all intents and purposes, Islamic fundamentalism and Islamism have become synonyms in contemporary American usage.

The Council on American–Islamic Relations complained in 2013 that the Associated Press's definition of "Islamist"—a "supporter of government in accord with the laws of Islam [and] who view the Quran as a political model"—had become a pejorative shorthand for "Muslims we don't like".[21] Mansoor Moaddel, a sociologist at Eastern Michigan University, criticized it as "not a good term" because "the use of the term Islamist does not capture the phenomena that is quite heterogeneous."

The AP Stylebook entry for Islamist as of 2013 reads as follows:

"An advocate or supporter of a political movement that favors reordering government and society in accordance with laws prescribed by Islam. Do not use as a synonym for Islamic fighters, militants, extremists or radicals, who may or may not be Islamists. possible, be specific and use the name of militant affiliations: al-Qaida-linked, Hezbollah, Taliban, etc. Those who view the Quran as a political model encompass a wide range of Muslims, mainstream politicians to militants known as jihadi."

Islamism (also often called political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism)[1]definition refers to a "broad set of political ideologies that utilize and draw inspiration Islamic symbols and traditions in pursuit of a sociopolitical objective."

Ideologies dubbed Islamist may advocate a "revolutionary" strategy of Islamizing society through exercise of state power, or alternately a "reformist" strategy to re-Islamizing society through grass-roots social and political activism.Islamists may emphasize the implementation of sharia,pan-Islamic political unity, the creation of Islamic states,[5] or the ive cleansing of non-Muslim influences; particularly of Western economic, military, political, social, or cultural nature in the Muslim world that they believe to be incompatible with Islam.[4] Some analysts such as Graham E. Fuller describe it as a form of identity politics, involving "support for [Muslim] identity, authenticity, broader regionalism, revivalism, [and] revitalization of the community."

The term itself is not popular amongst many Islamists who believe it inherently implies violent tactics, human rights violations, and political extremism when used by Western mass media.Some authors prefer the term "Islamic activism", while Islamist political figures such as Rached Ghannouchi use the term "Islamic movement" rather than Islamism.

Central and prominent figures in 20th-century Islamism include Hassan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb,Abul A'la Maududi, and Ruhollah Khomeini.Many Islamist movements, such as the Muslim Brotherhood (designated as a terrorist organization by Bahrain, Russia, Syria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates), have been willing to pursue their ends by peaceful political processes, rather than revolutionary means.[Others, notably Qutb, called for violence, and his followers are generally considered Islamic extremists. However, Qutb openly denounced the killing of innocents.According to Robin Wright, Islamist movements have "arguably altered the Middle East more than any trend since the modern states gained independence", redefining "politics and even borders".[ Following the Arab Spring, some Islamist currents became heavily involved in democratic politics,[while others spawned "the most aggressive and ambitious Islamist militia" to date, such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.[The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles.In academic usage, the term Islamism does not specify what vision of "Islamic order" or sharia is being advocated, or how the advocates intend to bring about that vision.


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